Long before Photoshop and Instagram filters, ancient civilizations enhanced their smiles the old-fashioned way. The Mayans filled holes in their teeth with jade, Etruscans perfected rudimentary golden grills, and Egyptians crushed rock, mint and dried iris flower to create the world’s oldest identified toothpaste.
Although the number of women in higher education is growing, they have yet to achieve equity. This gap is prominent in dentistry, where men outnumber women in school and in practice. In the 1960s, 10 percent of students in medical, law and MBA programs were women. In the 1990s, the number of graduate student women began to outnumber men.